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Título : Estudio sobre la aplicación de una Arcilla Superácida (SACS), para disminuir la contaminación ambiental causada por Ácidos Inorgánicos y Minerales en Síntesis y Procesos.
Fecha de publicación : 28-jun-2012
Resumen : The natural clays are obtain mainly from the Earth surface like solid materials that defer by their size from particle and structure, formed mainly by oxides of silicon, aluminum and small amounts of elements like sodium, potassium, iron, magnesium, calcium, etc. These last elements considered in some cases like impurities and other occasion like important part of its composition. In the last thirty 30 years these clays have acquired a great importance and application like modified catalytic materials to the being in their chemical or skeletal structure, in their original form has nevertheless not had great demand, except for it has to be used as material to purify or to clean currents you eliminate or soda waters, in decoloracion of oils or products derived from I refuel. Although in our country it exists a great variety of clays all do not have the capacity to be used like catalysts, the majority are used in the manufacture of stoneware, ceramics, pottery etc. Nevertheless the family of the esmectitas and in special the mormorillonita, is very useful to elaborate material catalytic and in other interesting applications in chemistry. In this work are the results obtained in the preparation of a natural clay of type of montmorillonitico originating of puebla, tlaxcala, which is put under a purification and appropriate chemical treatment to be used like material of support obtaining itself an superacid catalyst(SACS), with the purpose to replace in most of the inorganic liquid acids and mineral such as H2S04, oleum, HF, HCl, HBr, HI, H2CrO4, etc. Since these acids at the present time are used like reagents and catalytic agents in different processes and chemical reactions from level laboratory and industrialist, causing problematic the environmental one due to the acid affluents that are generated in different stages from the process and neutralization. the acid catalysts have as purpose of diminishing the consumption of energy, unitary stages of process and operations, maintaining the clean area of work and without danger by liquid acid manipulation, eliminating therefore the environmental contingencies, and avoiding the risk of transporting toxic and dangerous material. Also to the results and techniques obtained in the characterization of the clay are discussed, using technical espectrocopicas like dispercion normal of x-rayses, determination of the Hammet acidity, (to determine the acid capacity of the supported clay), being values interesting to be used like an superacid material and substitute of traditional liquid acids, I determine their texturales properties, àrea superficial, volume of pore, distribuciòn of volume, quìmica composition by atomic absorption. The results and collected data of their evaluation and catalytic quality were made in reactions of esterificacion of carboxilicos acids, oxidation and dehydration of alcohol. As well as the methods used in him control of the reactions, advance of the same and technical espectrocopicas in the identification and characterization of reaction products as they are: espectrocopia of masses and nuclear magnetic resonance. many catalysts unknown until deacadas make a pair of, outside classic the mass ones or the obtained ones by impregnating, have had a great demand in the scope of the catalysis. Now they have appeared a new class of catalytic, all under a bàsico principle of his property of the acidity, in many cases greater to the one than they already present/display liquid acids well-known and employees in classic industrial operations. one of the characteristics of the modern scientist is to stay in the vanguard, situation that has generated groups of scientists in different parts from the planet and to incursionar in unknown and simultaneously intriguing world to him of the catalysts, those that with their magic and particularitity have allowed to make agile chemical processes or to even generate new compounds and in this interesting time but, the chemical generation of processes and operations by clean, ecological and simple routes but in the denominated care of environment (catalytic ecological).
Descripción : Aumentar el rendimiento y selectividad de una reacción de esterificación y oxidación optimizando el proceso de reacción mediante rutas más limpias y condiciones más apropiadas, eliminando en su mayoría la generación de efluentes tóxicos y contaminación ambiental. También se elimina el lavado de material y equipo de proceso disminuyendo costos de reacción, proceso y energéticos, mediante la aplicación de un catalizador superácido (SACS).
URI : http://www.repositoriodigital.ipn.mx/handle/123456789/5719
Aparece en las colecciones: Maestría

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