Por favor, use este identificador para citar o enlazar este ítem: http://repositoriodigital.ipn.mx/handle/123456789/11607
Título : Time Varying Heat Conduction in Solids
Palabras clave : HEAT TRANSFER
Fecha de publicación : 16-ene-2013
Editorial : INTECH
Descripción : People experiences heat propagation since ancient times. The mathematical foundations of this phenomenon were established nearly two centuries ago with the early works of Fourier [Fourier, 1952]. During this time the equations describing the conduction of heat in solids have proved to be powerful tools for analyzing not only the transfer of heat, but also an enormous array of diffusion-like problems appearing in physical, chemical, biological, earth and even economic and social sciences [Ahmed & Hassan, 2000]. This is because the conceptual mathematical structure of the non-stationary heat conduction equation, also known as the heat diffusion equation, has inspired the mathematical formulation of several other physical processes in terms of diffusion, such as electricity flow, mass diffusion, fluid flow, photons diffusion, etc [Mandelis, 2000; Marín, 2009a]. A review on the history of the Fourier´s heat conduction equations and how Fourier´s work influenced and inspired others can be found elsewhere [Narasimhan, 1999]. But although Fourier´s heat conduction equations have served people well over the last two centuries there are still several phenomena appearing often in daily life and scientific research that require special attention and carefully interpretation. For example, when very fast phenomena and small structure dimensions are involved, the classical law of Fourier becomes inaccurate and more sophisticated models are then needed to describe the thermal conduction mechanism in a physically acceptable way [Joseph & Preziosi, 1989, 1990]. Moreover, the temperature, the basic parameter of Thermodynamics, may not be defined at very short length scales but only over a length larger than the phonons mean free paths, since its concept is related to the average energy of a system of particles [Cahill, et al., 2003; Wautelet & Duvivier, 2007]. Thus, as the mean free path is in the nanometer range for many materials at room temperature, systems with characteristic dimensions below about 10 nm are in a nonthermodynamical regime, although the concepts of thermodynamics are often used for the description of heat transport in them. To the author´s knowledge there is no yet a comprehensible and well established way to solve this very important problem about the definition of temperature in such systems and the measurement of their thermal properties remains a challenging task. On the other hand there are some aspects of the heat conduction through solids heated by time varying sources that contradict common intuition of many people, being the subject of possible misinterpretations. The same occurs with the understanding of the role of thermal parameters governing these phenomena. 178 Heat Conduction – Basic Research Thus, this chapter will be devoted to discuss some questions related to the above mentioned problems starting with the presentation of the equations governing heat transfer for different cases of interest and discussing their solutions, with emphasis in the role of the thermal parameters involved and in applications in the field of materials thermal characterization. The chapter will be distributed as follows. In the next section a brief discussion of the principal mechanisms of heat transfer will be given, namely those of convection, radiation and conduction. Emphasis will be made in the definition of the heat transfer coefficients for each mechanism and in the concept of the overall heat transfer coefficient that will be used in later sections. Section 2 will be devoted to present the general equation governing nonstationary heat propagation, namely the well known (parabolic) Fourier’s heat diffusion equation, in which further discussions will be mainly based. The conditions will be discussed under which this equation can be applied. The modified Fourier’s law, also known as Cattaneo’s Equation [Cattaneo, 1948], will be presented as a useful alternative when the experimental conditions are such that it becomes necessary to consider a relaxation time or build-up time for the onset of the thermal flux after a temperature gradient is suddenly imposed on the sample. Cattaneo’s equation leads them to the hyperbolic heat diffusion equation. Due to its intrinsic importance it will be discussed with some detail. In Section 3 three important situations involving time varying heat sources will be analyzed, namely: (i) a sample periodically and uniformly heated at one of its surfaces, (ii) a finite sample exposed to a finite duration heat pulse, and (iii) a finite slab with superficial continuous uniform thermal excitation. In each case characteristic time and length scales will be defined and discussed. Some apparently paradoxical behaviors of the thermal signals and the role playing by the characteristic thermal properties will be explained and physical implications in practical fields of applications will be presented too. In Section 4 our conclusions will be drawn.
URI : http://www.repositoriodigital.ipn.mx/handle/123456789/11607
Otros identificadores : 978-953-307-404-7
Aparece en las colecciones: Doctorado

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